Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) affects individuals with non-systemic or mildly systemic immunodepression or altered pulmonary integrity due to underlying disease. It has been reported with a variety of clinical and radiological patterns. The condition should be distinguished from simple aspergilloma and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis as well as invasive aspergillosis in severely immunocompromised patients. CPA generally requires long-term antifungal treatment and surgery may be considered. Life-threatening haemoptysis may be prevented by bronchial arteriography with embolisation. However, currently there are no documented treatment recommendations for CPA. This review provides an up-to-date practical overview of this condition, including a comprehensive update on diagnosis and management.