Successful Early Rituximab Treatment in a Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Potentially Fatal Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with a high early mortality rate. DAH seldom occurs without active organ involvement. Recently, rituximab (RTX), a B cell-targeted therapy, has been reported to be effective for life-threatening autoimmune diseases. We describe a SLE patient who presented with acute respiratory failure due to DAH without other active organ involvement. This condition was dramatically improved with RTX without cyclophosphamide.

© 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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