Lymphoproliferative Disorders after Lung Transplantation: Clinicopathological Characterization of 16 Cases with Identification of Very-Late-Onset Forms

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Abstract

Background:

The incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) has recently declined, but late cases are increasingly reported in lung transplant recipients.

Objectives:

We present our experience with PTLD after lung transplantation, attempting to examine the distinguishing characteristics of early versus late cases.

Methods:

We have reviewed clinical and pathological data of all cases occurring in our institution between 2001 and 2014.

Results:

Patients, aged 15-63 years, were mostly (12/16) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seropositive at the time of transplantation. Eleven early cases, occurring 9.4 ± 5.2 months after transplantation and mostly (9/11) prior to 2010, had EBV+ diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Lungs and/or thoracic lymph nodes were often involved (n = 8). Treatments included reduction of immune suppression (n = 11), rituximab (n = 8) and chemotherapy (n = 7). Two patients are in complete remission at 26 and 216 months. Nine patients died 8.0 ± 6.5 months after PTLD diagnosis. Of the 5 cases with late PTLD occurring 4-23 years (mean ± SD: 10.4 ± 7.7) after transplantation (and 3/5 after 2009), 1 had pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis (only endothoracic case), 1 cutaneous large T-cell lymphoma, 2 had anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and 1 Hodgkin's disease. Two of the 5 cases were EBV-, including one followed by a second EBV+ PTLD after 8 years of complete remission. Two patients were alive and well (follow-up: 44 and 151 months), one having suffered from EBV-related cholestatic hepatitis 6 years after the PTLD.

Conclusion:

Our small experience shows a trend toward (very) late occurrence, associated with more unusual clinicopathologic features, but not with a worse prognosis.

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