The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) and the C825T polymorphism in the G-protein β3 subunit gene (GNB3) are associated with the efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE-5I) in erectile dysfunction. In addition, GNB3 genotypes could be associated with clinical worsening in pulmonary hypertension (PH) treated with PDE-5I. However, no studies have described the synergistic effects of gene polymorphisms on drug efficacy in patients with PH.Objectives:
We aimed to examine the effects of combined ACE/GNB3 polymorphisms on the efficacy of PDE-5I in patients with PH.Methods:
This was a retrospective uncontrolled study. Ninety patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) were treated with PDE-5I. Freedom from clinical worsening and pre- and post-treatment parameters, including the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels, were compared between patients with ACE/GNB3 II/TT and non-II/TT genotypes.Results:
Time to clinical worsening was significantly longer in patients with the II/TT genotype than in those with the non-II/TT genotype (5-year freedom from clinical worsening: 100 vs. 48.8%, respectively; p = 0.018), even in patients with CTEPH alone. Post-treatment 6MWD and BNP levels in patients with the II/TT genotype tended to be better than those in patients with the non-II/TT genotype. The ACE/GNB3 genotype was a significant predictor of clinical worsening, even after adjusting for pulmonary vascular resistance and 6MWD.Conclusions:
ACE and GNB3 polymorphisms may synergistically influence the efficacy of PDE-5I in patients with PH.