The Lung in Dysregulated States of Humoral Immunity

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In common variable immunodeficiency, lung manifestations are related to different mechanisms: recurrent pneumonias due to encapsulated bacteria responsible for diffuse bronchiectasis, diffuse infiltrative pneumonia with various patterns, and lymphomas, mostly B cell extranodal non-Hodgkin type. The diagnosis relies on significant serum Ig deficiency and the exclusion of any primary or secondary cause. Histopathology may be needed. Immunoglobulin (IgG) replacement is crucial to prevent infections and bronchiectasis. IgG4-related respiratory disease, often associated with extrapulmonary localizations, presents with solitary nodules or masses, diffuse interstitial lung diseases, bronchiolitis, lymphadenopathy, and pleural or pericardial involvement. Diagnosis relies on international criteria including serum IgG4 dosage and significantly increased IgG4/IgG plasma cells ratio in pathologically suggestive biopsy. Respiratory amyloidosis presents with tracheobronchial, nodular, and cystic or diffuse interstitial lung infiltration. Usually of AL (amyloid light chain) subtype, it may be localized or systemic, primary or secondary to a lymphoproliferative process. Very rare other diseases due to nonamyloid IgG deposits are described. Among the various lung manifestations of dysregulated states of humoral immunity, this article covers only those associated with the common variable immunodeficiency, IgG4-related disease, amyloidosis, and pulmonary light-chain deposition disease. Autoimmune connective-vascular tissue diseases or lymphoproliferative disorders are addressed in other chapters of this issue.

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