Background: The optimal approach to sedation for pleuroscopy remains undefined. Propofol is the favored sedative-hypnotic for many proceduralists but has a narrow therapeutic window and the risk for oversedation is high. Propofol-based sedation administered by anesthesiologists and the routine use of end-tidal capnography and bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may attenuate risks of complications. Objectives: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of monitored anesthesia care for pleuroscopy. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patientswho underwent pleuroscopy. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of anesthesia complications in patients undergoing pleuroscopy. Hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation of less than 90% for 2 min and hypotension was defined as the need for vasopressors. Results: Of 199 enrolled patients, there were no significant complications attributed directly to anesthesia. Minor complications included hypoxia in 9 patients (4.5%), hypotension in 76 patients (38.2%), and insertion of a nasopharyngeal tube airway in 2 patients (1.0%). There was no significant difference in anesthesia-related complications between those with BIS monitoring and those without. Lower mean oxygen saturations (p = 0.028) and hypoxia (p = 0.021) were found in patients receiving the combination of propofol plus narcotics plus sedatives compared to those receiving propofol only, propofol plus narcotics or propofol plus sedatives. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that pleuroscopy using propofol with end-tidal capnography monitoring, with or without BIS monitoring, is safe and effective. The combination of propofol with narcotics and sedatives is associated with more hypoxia and lower mean oxygen saturation compared with propofol alone, propofol plus narcotics or propofol plus sedatives.