More than 2 million people fleeing conflict, persecution, and poverty applied for asylum between 2015 and 2016 in the European Union. Due to this, medical practitioners in recipient countries may be facing a broader spectrum of conditions and unusual presentations not previously encountered, including a wide range of infections with pulmonary involvement. Tuberculosis is known to be more common in migrants and has been covered broadly in other publications. The scope of this review was to provide an overview of exotic infections with pulmonary involvement that could be encountered in refugees and migrants and to briefly describe their epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. As refugees and migrants travel from numerous countries and continents, it is important to be aware of the various organisms that might cause disease according to the country of origin. Some of these diseases are very rare and geographically restricted to certain regions, while others have a more cosmopolitan distribution. Also, the spectrum of severity of these infections can vary from very benign to severe and even life-threatening. We will also describe infectious and noninfectious complications that can be associated with HIV infection as some migrants might originate from high HIV prevalence countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can be challenging in certain situations, patients with suspected infection might require referral to specialized centers with experience in their management. Additionally, a brief description of noncommunicable pulmonary diseases will be provided.