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This is the sixteenth reported case of pulmonary botryomycosis, an uncommon suppurative bacterial infection of the lung. We describe the case of a 69-year-old man who presented with a chronic cough and intermittent haemoptysis and on subsequent chest computed tomographic scan imaging was found to have a right lower lobe mass. He underwent a right lower lobectomy for presumed lung cancer. Histological analysis however revealed a bacterial aetiology. The past literature is reviewed outlining the pathogenesis and difficulties of clinical and radiological diagnosis. Primary pulmonary botryomycosis forms an important curative differential diagnosis for lung cancer.