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Bronchial anthracostenosis describes a disease entity consisting of bronchial destruction, deformity and stenosis related to dark pigmentation on bronchoscopy in patients with a history of coal workers' pneumoconiosis or chronic exposure to biomass smoke. The combined occurrence of bronchial anthracostenosis and mediastinal fibrosis in association with wood-smoke exposure has not been previously reported. This case report describes a non-cigarette smoking elderly woman who developed bronchial anthracostenosis and mediastinal fibrosis after long-term exposure to wood smoke. Clinical and radiological improvements were achieved after treatment with corticosteroid and tamoxifen. Awareness of this unusual entity will help to avoid misdiagnosis of malignancy or unnecessary thoracotomy.