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Pulmonary fibrosis has a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders is unclear, but the extent of lung damage due to persistent inflammation is regarded as a critical factor. Rolipram inhibits inflammation induced by various stimuli, as well as the chemotaxis of fibroblasts. In this study rolipram was used to treat pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin A5 in rats, and the possible mechanisms were investigated.Rolipram (0.25 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally daily, following intratracheal instillation of bleomycin A5 (5 mg/kg). Animals were killed at 7 or 28 days after bleomycin A5 instillation, and indices of lung damage and fibrosis were evaluated.Bleomycin A5 induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, increased the levels of malondialdehyde and tumour necrosis factor-α and enhanced accumulation of collagen in the lungs. Rolipram administration significantly attenuated these effects.Rolipram ameliorated pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis induced by bleomycin A5 in rats. The effects of rolipram may be associated with its antioxidant activity and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α production.