FLECKED RETINA, CHOROIDOPATHY, AND RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIAL TEAR IN FAMILIAL PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

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Abstract

Background:

Thanks to advancement in treatment modalities, the medial survival rate of patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (FPAH) has been improved. Unfortunately, ocular complications because of the chronically elevated systemic venous pressure become more frequent.

Methods:

The authors report new FPAH-associated fundus changes in a 50-year-old male patient treated with sildenafil. The anomalies were studied with autofluorescence, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, and spectral optical coherence tomography including enhanced depth imaging.

Results:

Loss of vision and cystoid macular edema were associated with a flecked retina, a thick choroid, central serous choroidopathy-like changes in both eyes and with retinal pigment epithelium detachments and a retinal pigment epithelium tear in the right eye.

Conclusion:

Treatment of ocular findings associated with FPAH mainly involves optimal control of pulmonary arterial hypertension and ophthalmic supportive treatment toward preventing acute ocular complications. The ocular complications occur as a result of enhanced pressure in the superior vena cava and in the ophthalmic veins, resulting in dilation of the ocular veins and congestion of the choroid. Sildenafil treatment in FPAH may enhance the congestion of the choroid and can induce central serous choroidopathy-like changes. A flecked retina, central serous choroidopathy-like changes, and retinal pigment epithelium tear are rare complications of FPAH.

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