To evaluate the possible benefit of pars plana vitrectomy in the treatment of patients with endophthalmitis following antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection.Method:
The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients in their practice with a diagnosis of endophthalmitis from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2011. Only those with a clinical presentation consistent with endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injection were included. Clinical data that were collected and recorded included visual acuities and the method of initial and subsequent treatment of endophthalmitis following anti-VEGF injection: tap and injection of intravitreal antibiotics (TAP) and tap and inject with subsequent pars plana vitrectomy (VIT).Results:
The authors identified 23 patients meeting criteria. Nineteen patients had received bevacizumab and four patients had received ranibizumab. The median time from last injection to presentation was 4 days (range, 1–18 days) with a median follow-up of 15 months (range, 5–48 months) after being diagnosed of endophthalmitis. Nine patients had positive cultures. The median baseline visual acuity (preendophthalmitis) was 20/70 (range, 20/25 to counting fingers at 2 ft) with a median presenting visual acuity of counting fingers at 1 ft (range, 20/50 to light perception vision). Overall, 90% (9/10) of the patients in TAP only group regained visual acuity within 1 line or better of baseline versus 46% (6 of 13) in the TAP and VIT group. Only one of the patients treated with TAP alone suffered more than one line of visual acuity loss.Conclusion:
Patients diagnosed with endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF intravitreal injection who underwent TAP regained baseline visual acuity more often than those who underwent TAP and VIT. This study did not support a benefit for VIT in all patients, rather only in those cases who warranted it because of worsening clinical course. The study suggests that TAP is a viable primary intervention for endophthalmitis after anti-VEGF injection.