To describe the features of choroidal lymphoma on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.Methods:
This retrospective observational case series included 14 eyes of 13 patients, with choroidal lymphoma, studied by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography.Results:
The mean age at presentation was 63 years (median, 65 years; range, 32–87 years). Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was present in 2 cases as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1) or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (n = 1). On clinical examination, the choroidal infiltrate was classified as unifocal (n = 3), multifocal (n = 4), or diffuse (n = 7). Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans through the tumor epicenter revealed infiltration of the choroid with apparent inward compression of choroidal vascular structures, creating an anterior tumor surface topography that appeared smooth (calm) (n = 7), mini-wavy (rippled) (n = 2), or maxi-wavy (undulating) (n = 5). Greater tumor thickness correlated with increasing tumor surface fluctuation as calm was mean 1.7mm, rippled was 2.8 mm, and undulating surface was 4.1 mm in ultrasonographic thickness. On enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, the mean subfoveolar choroidal thickness, measurable in 9 eyes, was 484 μm (median, 423 μm; range, 156–1,002 μm) (81% greater) versus 267 μm (median, 276 μm; range, 142–501 μm) in the unaffected eye. The mean maximal tumor thickness, measurable in 8 eyes, was 117% greater at 602 μm (median, 538 μm; range, 241–966 μm) compared with the corresponding unaffected choroid in the contralateral eye at 278 μm (median, 245 μm; range, 189–511 μm) (P = 0.046). Inability to measure choroidal thickness was due to dense tumor-induced optical shadowing with inability to visualize the sclerochoroidal junction (P = 0.009). There was no visible infiltration into the overlying retina in any case.Conclusion:
Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of choroidal lymphoma revealed 1 of 3 surface topographical patterns resembling an ocean as calm (n = 7), rippled (n = 2), or undulating (n = 5), correlating with increasing tumor thickness.