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To evaluate the ability to visualize and document posterior segment pathology through the Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) using the Optos P200Tx ultra-widefield (UWF) scanning laser ophthalmoscope.A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent Boston Type I keratoprosthesis implantation and who subsequently were imaged with an UWF system. Ultra-widefield images were reviewed to evaluate for vitreoretinal pathology and were compared with the clinical examination.In this series of 10 patients (10 eyes), 100% of vitreoretinal pathology found on clinical examination was detectable using the Optos system. In 4 cases (40%), UWF imaging provided superior detection of pathology compared with the clinical examination by imaging through retroprosthetic membranes (3 cases) and by detection of a retinal detachment (one case). In 1 case (10%), B-scan ultrasonography was needed to characterize vitreoretinal pathology that could not be definitively distinguished on UWF imaging and was difficult to detect on clinical examination. Ultra-widefield imaging detected the following vitreoretinal pathologies in KPro eyes: retinal hemorrhage, epiretinal membrane, retinal detachment, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and choroidal folds.Ultra-widefield imaging provides a high-resolution view of the posterior pole and periphery despite the limitations of imaging through the narrow optic of Boston Type I keratoprosthesis, and it may improve visualization through retroprosthetic membranes. Detection and documentation of vitreoretinal complications in the setting of a permanent keratoprosthesis may be enhanced using UWF imaging.