THE ASSOCIATION OF EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE WITH MACULAR HOLE FORMATION AFTER RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT REPAIR

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Abstract

Purpose:

To describe the clinical and optical coherence tomography findings associated with the development of full-thickness macular holes after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair.

Methods:

Retrospective, interventional case series. All patients who developed full-thickness macular holes after successful RRD repair from 3 clinical practices were reviewed. All cases of combined/simultaneous full-thickness macular hole and RRD were excluded. The main outcome measure was the presence of an epiretinal membrane at time of diagnosis of macular hole.

Results:

Twenty-five full-thickness macular holes were diagnosed after successful retinal detachment repair. Surgical approach to RRD repair included pneumatic retinopexy (6, 24%), scleral buckle alone (5, 20%), pars plana vitrectomy only (8, 32%), and combined scleral buckle and pars plana vitrectomy (6, 24%). The preceding RRD involved the macula in 19 patients (76%) before the formation of the macular hole. The median time to full-thickness macular hole diagnosis after RRD repair was 63 days (range, 4–4,080 days). An epiretinal membrane was present in all 25 (100%) macular holes. Two macular holes (8%) spontaneously closed, whereas the other 23 (92%) were successfully closed with a single surgical procedure. Mean visual acuity improved by approximately 5 lines to 20/72 (range, 20/20 to counting fingers at 1 foot) from 20/240 (range, 20/30 to hand motions) after macular hole repair (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion:

Full-thickness macular hole formation can occur after all types of RRD repair and is associated with an epiretinal membrane. The epiretinal membrane may play a role in the pathogenesis of secondary macular hole formation after RRD repair.

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