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To investigate factors associated with visual improvement and retreatment 12 months after a combination therapy of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab or aflibercept followed by photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.Changes in the best-corrected visual acuity and the subfoveal thickness of the retina and choroid were studied in 56 consecutive eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated initially with a combination therapy of either intravitreal ranibizumab injection (n = 23) or intravitreal aflibercept injection (n = 33) followed by photodynamic therapy. Factors associated with visual improvement and retreatment were investigated.Best-corrected visual acuity significantly improved with significant reduction in central macular thickness and subfoveal choroidal thickness at all points irrespective of treatment modalities (P < 0.001). Better best-corrected visual acuity and improvement of best-corrected visual acuity at 12 months were associated with baseline greater subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.028 and P = 0.028) and baseline smaller greatest linear dimension (P = 0.0077 and P = 0.0077). Retreatment during 12-month follow-up was associated with baseline lesser subfoveal choroidal thickness (P = 0.036).Irrespective of treatment modalities, the visual outcome at 12 months is favorable in eyes with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy treated by photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab or aflibercept. Baseline greater subfoveal choroidal thickness was associated with a better visual outcome and with reduction in the need for retreatment.