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To determine the choroidal blood flow and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with macular edema secondary to a BRVO were treated with a single intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) and were followed for 2 months. The central retinal thickness and SCT, and the retinal and choroidal blood flows were evaluated, and they were compared between the recurrent and resolved groups.At the baseline, the SCT of eyes with a BRVO was significantly thicker than that of the fellow eye (P < 0.01). It was also significantly thicker in the recurrent group than in the resolved group (P = 0.03). The reduction of the retinal blood flow was found only after 1 week in the resolved group. The SCT and choroidal blood flow were significantly reduced during the follow-up period in the resolved group but not in the recurrent group.The choroid is involved in the pathology of BRVO and the SCT at the baseline may be a predictive factor in the treatment of intravitreal injection of ranibizumab for macular edema secondary to BRVO.