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The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term anatomical and functional outcomes in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO), either central retinal vein occlusion or branch retinal vein occlusion, treated with intravitreal ranibizumab and to determine the predictive factors of the final visual outcome.This retrospective study included 54 treatment-naive patients with macular edema due to RVO (25 with central retinal vein occlusion and 29 with branch retinal vein occlusion), who were treated with intravitreal ranibizumab (3 monthly injections and pro re nata). Predictive factors for visual outcome were assessed. In addition, the best-corrected visual acuity change and the percentage of patients with edema resolution were evaluated.The mean follow-up time was 47.4 ± 11.1 months. At the end of the follow-up, patients with central retinal vein occlusion gained +6.9 letters (∼1 Snellen line), whereas patients with branch retinal vein occlusion gained +15.1 letters (3 Snellen lines). Forty-eight percent of patients in central retinal vein occlusion group and 69.0% in branch retinal vein occlusion group presented resolution of macular edema. Negative predictive factors for the final visual outcome were found to be increasing age, increasing macular thickness, the presence of intraretinal fluid, the duration of RVO >3 months, the ischemic type of RVO, the cystoid type of edema, and the external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone disruption.The various predictive factors that determine the visual outcome and possibly define the patients' prognosis after ranibizumab treatment in RVO have been studied. The long follow-up period showed that ranibizumab seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of the disease.