To investigate the association between choroidal caverns, choroidal vascular hyperpermeability (CVH), and pachyvessels in eyes with pachychoroid disease.Methods:
This was a retrospective review of swept-source optical coherence tomography and indocyanine green angiography imaging performed on eyes with pachychoroid disease.Results:
Imaging from 21 eyes with pachychoroid disease entities (8 eyes with pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy, 11 eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy, and 3 eyes with pachychoroid neovasculopathy) from 11 patients (mean 49.5 years, male/female: 10/1, all white) was available for review. In all study eyes, pachyvessels traversed the areas of CVH visible in mid- and late-phase indocyanine green angiography. A total of 504 choroidal caverns were identified in 11 study eyes (52%). Of the 504 choroidal caverns, 445 (88%) were seen within the areas of CVH compared with 59 (12%), which were detected outside the areas of CVH (P < 0.001). Eyes with multiple caverns had an increased choroidal thickness when compared with eyes with ≤1 cavern (P < 0.001).Conclusion:
Choroidal caverns, found primarily in the areas of indocyanine green angiography CVH traversed by pachyvessels, were detected in 52% of eyes with pachychoroid disease. The presence of choroidal caverns in these cases may indicate a loss of normal choroidal architecture associated with dilated Haller layer veins and increased choroidal thickness.