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To assess the decentration and angle of tilt of the intraocular lens (IOL) according to the intravitreal tamponade types used in combined phacoemulsification and vitreoretinal surgery.This prospective and randomized clinical study involved 73 eyes of 69 patients who underwent combined vitreoretinal surgery. Eyes with intravitreal tamponades formed the study group and eyes without intravitreal tamponades formed the control group. The study group was further divided into silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups. Cross-sectional IOL images were captured using a Pentacam HR (Oculus, Germany) and tilt and decentration were calculated with Adobe Photoshop software (Adobe, San Jose, CA).The mean angle of tilt and decentration at the vertical meridian were significantly higher in both tamponade groups than in the control group (P < 0.05 for all). No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding IOL position parameters at the horizontal meridian (P > 0.05). When comparing the silicone oil and gas tamponade subgroups, no significant differences were noted on the position of IOL at both meridians (P > 0.05 for all).Intravitreal tamponades have an important effect on the position of IOL in combined vitreoretinal surgery. Silicone oil and gas tamponades may induce postoperative tilt and decentration of one-piece acrylic IOLs.