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The taxonomy of the ‘Streptococcus milleri’ strains has been debated for many years, until they were finally allocated into three distinct species: Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius. In this review, the taxonomic history and the identification of the three species are discussed. The clinical picture, pathogenicity and antimicrobial susceptibilities of these organisms are compiled from data reported on the three distinct species and on ‘S. milleri’ as a whole.