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The association of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to diseases with high morbidity and mortality provides evidence for the necessity of a vaccine to prevent infection or to reduce the burden of infection. Vaccine prototypes such as recombinant subunit vaccines, peptide epitope-based vaccines, recombinant virus vector-based vaccines, DNA vaccines, and EBV life vaccines have been developed for protective vaccination as well as for therapeutic vaccination and successfully tested in vitro and in animal model. Phase I and phase II human trials have been performed for a few of these strategies with no significant adverse effects being observed. Sterile immunity and prevention of infection were not achieved so far, but efficiency against EBV-associated diseases could be demonstrated.