HIV and parasite co-infection epidemiology: a scope since 2005

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Parasites have been the cause of one of the most common forms of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, and several of these causative agents can worsen the clinical situation of the HIV-infected patients. The principal forms of intestinal parasitic infections in non-immunocompromised patients include cryptosporiosis, isosporidiosis and microsporidiosis, whereas strongyloidiasis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are the most important causes of parasitic systemic infections reported in HIV-infected patients. It has been shown that parasitic infections could simulate HIV replication and accelerate disease progression. In developing countries, malaria and HIV overlap geographically. This review covers the latest studies on parasite–HIV co-infection epidemiology since 2005.

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