Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease: a review of epidemiologic findings

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Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in the epidemiology of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD), and to discuss their implications. This review is particularly timely as several epidemiological studies that enhance the understanding of CPPD have been published recently.Recent findingsThis article will review recent findings on the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis; discuss new data on the associations between bone mineral density and chondrocalcinosis; and between diuretic use, chronic kidney disease 5 and ‘pseudogout’ (now termed acute calcium pyrophosphate crystal arthritis). It will summarize findings from a large dataset which reported that chondrocalcinosis results from a systemic predisposition, and that the association between chondrocalcinosis and polymorphisms in ANKH gene is independent of age and osteoarthritis. It will also review recent data which suggest that the association between chondrocalcinosis and osteoarthritis may be joint specific, and that chondrocalcinosis associates with radiographic attrition in knees with osteoarthritis.SummaryThe studies reviewed suggest that CPPD occurs due to a generalized predisposition, and that it modifies the radiographic phenotype of osteoarthritis. However, further research is required to confirm if CPPD modifies the clinical phenotype of osteoarthritis.

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