Early Cleavage of Handmade Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Embryos is an Indicator of Their Developmental Competence and Quality

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Following IVF, embryos which cleave early have been shown to have higher developmental competence and quality than those that cleave relatively later across many species. We investigated the effect of time of cleavage on the developmental competence, quality, epigenetic status and gene expression in buffalo embryos produced by handmade cloning (HMC). Following classification of embryos as early cleaving (EC) or late cleaving (LC) based on whether they had cleaved or not at 24 h post in vitro culture, 54% (164/303) were found to be EC and the rest to be LC. The blastocyst rate (58.1 ± 3.4 vs 36.9 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01) and the total cell number (285.5 ± 41.9 vs 141.4 ± 36.1, p < 0.05) were higher, whereas the apoptotic index (3.6 ± 0.6 vs 12.2 ± 1.7, p < 0.01) and the global level of H3K9ac and H3K27me3 were lower (p < 0.05) in the blastocysts produced from EC than in those produced from LC embryos. The relative transcript level of CASPASE3, CASPASE7, DNMT1, DNMT3a and CDX2 was higher (p < 0.05) and that of SOX2 was lower (p < 0.05) in blastocysts produced from LC than in those produced from EC embryos, whereas the expression level of CASPASE6, P53, P21, HDAC1, OCT4 and NANOG was not significantly different between the two groups. These results show that (i) following HMC, blastocysts produced from embryos that cleave early differ from those produced from late cleaving embryos in terms of epigenetic status and expression level of many important apoptosis-, pluripotency-, trophectoderm- and epigenetics-related genes, and (ii) EC embryos are superior to LC embryos in view of their higher developmental competence and quality.

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