BMP-6 has been found to be important to ovarian cells and oocyte, as well as to uterus. Thus, this study investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-6) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) alone or in combination on the in vitro culture (IVC) of isolated caprine secondary follicles (Experiment 1) and the mRNA levels for BMP receptors/Smad signalling pathway (BMPR1A, BMPR2, SMAD1, SMAD4, SMAD5, SMAD6, SMAD7 and SMAD8) in vivo and in vitro using BMP-6 (Experiment 2). Secondary follicles were cultured in αMEM+ alone (control medium) or supplemented with BMP-6 at 1 or 10 ng/ml and rFSH alone or the combination of both BMP-6 concentrations and rFSH. The results from Experiment 1 showed that the antrum formation rate was higher in the BMP-6 at 1 ng/ml (p < 0.05) than in MEM. In Experiment 2, the mRNA expression for BMPR2, SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD6 was detected in non-cultured control and after in vitro culture (MEM and 1 ng/ml BMP-6); while the expression of SMAD7 and SMAD8 mRNA was only detected after IVC, SMAD4 was only detected in the BMP-6 at 1 ng/ml treatment. In conclusion, the low BMP-6 concentration positively influenced antrum formation and ensured normal mRNA expression for BMP receptor and Smads after IVC of caprine secondary follicles.