The actions of prolactin hormone are mediated by prolactin receptor (PRLR), and proliferation and differentiation of secretory mammary epithelium are dependent on the presence of its receptors. To understand the PRLR expression pattern in mammary gland of dairy goat during different lactation stages, in this study, we first estimated the milk yield breeding value by multitrait random regression model and then compared the expression of the gene in different physiological stage of mammary gland between high- and low-breeding value groups. We assayed the transcription level of the gene by quantitative real-time PCR method, and its outcomes were analysed by a statistical model containing breeding value groups, sampling times and their interactions as fixed effects. The results indicated that the expression levels of PRLR gene were significantly upregulated in the drying stage (p < 0.01). The transcription pattern of the gene was significantly different between the two breeding value groups (p < 0.01), so that the amount of PRLR mRNA was significantly higher in the low-breeding value groups of animals in the lactation stage (p < 0.01). Based on the results of this study, it could be suggested that the abundance of PRLR transcripts in mammary gland of goat might be changed by some physiological, environmental and genetic factors. Nucleotide variations in the promoter region might be resulted in various transcription activities of the gene which should be studied in a complementary research.