CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ), an important transcriptional factor, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of female germ cell development. However, the role of C/EBPβ on the development of male germ cells has not been reported. In this study, we constructed the recombinant adenovirus plasmids of bovine C/EBPβ gene and harvested the subsequent adenoviruses, and then assessed the mRNA levels of spermatogenesis-related genes (real-time PCR) and secretion of inhibin B after 48 h of Ad-C/EBPβ recombinant adenovirus infection in bovine sertoli cells (SCs). We found that overexpression of exogenous C/EBPβ gene upregulated the mRNA expressions of spermatogenesis-related genes, including Pdgfa, Claudin, Caspase-3, Occludin, kit1 and Cyclin E, and decreased the mRNA levels of Cyclin D1. Meanwhile, overexpression of exogenous C/EBPβ gene significantly increases the amounts of secreted inhibin B. In conclusion, the results indicate that the C/EBPβ gene plays an important regulatory role in regulation of the cell cycle regulators and spermatogenesis-related genes expression and function of bovine SCs.