The purpose of this study was to examine individual and family adaptation in Taiwanese families of persons with severe and persistent mental illness. Mediating effects of social support and meaning of family caregiving on the relationship between pile-up of demands and family adaptation were also assessed. Data were collected from 84 families using mailed questionnaires and analyzed using principal component analysis and mixed linear modeling. Adaptation was associated with lower pile-up of demands, greater social support, and more positive interpretation of family caregiving. Partially mediating effects of social support and meaning of family caregiving were supported. The results imply a need for developing culturally sensitive interventions to decrease family demands and amplify individual, family, and community strengths and resources.