Polymorphic components of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. genome were examined by means of polymerase chain reaction with random primers (RAPD–PCR). Using four primers, genetic diversity estimates were obtained for 12 populations and seven strains of Russian common carp breeds, as well as for European Hungarian common carp and Amur wild common carp (N = 87). The highest number of polymorphic loci was revealed in Angelinskii common carp, as well as in the samples of Altai common carp and Amur wild common carp (P = 23.8–18.7%), while the lowest number (12.8%) of polymorphic loci was in the BB strain of Ropsha common carp. The index of genetic diversity, H, was high (11%) in Amur wild common carp, as well as in Altai and Angelinskii common carps. In the remaining breeds, the value of this index varied from 4 to 8%. Based on summarized RAPD profile (132 bands), a dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed. In this dendrogram, all breeds examined grouped into two clusters. One of the clusters was formed by Hungarian and Angelinskii common carps, and the three samples of Altai common carp. The second cluster was formed by the group consisting of the representatives of Cherepetskskii, Stavropol, and Ropsha common carps, along with the differing from them Amur wild common carp. The observed differentiation was confirmed by the analysis of the polymorphic markers variance by the method of principle components. Evolutionary history and the reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds are discussed.