Cells of a diploid line obtained from embryos with the Down's syndrome, known to be unable to repair gamma-induced DNA damage, were treated with natural (garlic extract, retinol) and synthetic (crown compound) antimutagens and with adapting factors (heat shock, low CdCl2 concentrations, 10−8 M). The protective effect was evaluated by registering DNA breaks and cell survival, and the protection coefficients were calculated. The most effective results were obtained with the use of the garlic extract and retinol. No protection of the DNA structure was observed when cells were treated with low concentrations of cadmium chloride and then with high concentrations, i. e., no adaptive response (AR) was formed under these conditions. The spectrum of proteins in treated and control cells as well as detoxication genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1) were determined.