Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by a bacteria called Brucella abortus. It is a zoonotic disease which means that it can transferred from animals to human beings. More than half a million people are affected with brucellosis each year. It is a Gram-negative, facultative, and intercellular bacterium. The bacteria is of the α-2 subdivision in the proteobacteria. The bacterium localizes in the reproductive organs of the host animals causing abortion and sterility. Its mode of transmission from animals to human beings is through ingestion of infected food products, having a direct contact with infected animals and the inhalation of aerosol. In human beings, the bacteria causes acute and chronic signs and symptoms. However, the infection can be treated through the use of antibiotics. Brucellosis is as one of the diseases that have been neglected in the Middle East and North Africa. This paper is a close analysis and discussion on the advancements in the biology and pathogenesis of Brucella and concludes the research by describing how Brucellosis can be treated and how it is prevented.