Understanding the dissemination of appointment-based synchronization models using the CFIR framework

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Background:The appointment based model (ABM) is a innovative model of pharmacy practice that combines medication synchronization with scheduled monthly appointments to improve patient medication adherence and convenience. It is being implemented in many pharmacies across the United States.Objective:The purpose of this article is to use the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to discuss the barriers and facilitators of ABM implementation in community pharmacies while identifying priorities for additional implementation research.Methods:A review of current evidence of ABM was examined using the five domains within the CFIR taxonomy. Interactions between these domains (the intervention, the individuals involved, the process used to implement the intervention, the inner setting, and the outer setting) and their sub domains were used to explain the current success of ABM and future barriers.Results:The CFIR is an effective theoretical framework for assessing ABM. It helps identify key constructs in ABM implementation and their relationships. It also suggests future research to facilitate its adoption as a standard of pharmacy practice.Conclusions:The adoption of ABM by pharmacies will be facilitated by better evidence of its clinical and economic impact on patient health outcomes, standardization of ABM, and integrating it into current workflows.

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