A multilevel stakeholder approach for identifying the determinants of implementation of government-funded community pharmacy services at the primary care level

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Background:A key early step to enhance the integration of community pharmacy services (CPSs) into primary care practice is identifying key determinants of practice (i.e., critical circumstances that influence the implementation of such services). Involving relevant stakeholders in identifying key determinants enables findings to be more relevant to the context in which CPSs will be implemented.Objective:To identify key determinants of practice that can influence the implementation of government-funded CPSs in a primary health network in Australia.Methods:A stakeholder collaborative approach was used, encompassing two phases. In the first phase, semi-structured interviews were conducted with ground-level stakeholders in Western Sydney between August 2016 to October 2016. Framework analysis was used to code and analyse the data from the interviews into determinants of pharmacy practice. In the second phase, a workshop was conducted with a mixed-group of ground-level and system-level stakeholders from the primary health network to identify key determinants. A four-quadrant prioritization matrix was employed in the workshop to classify determinants based on their importance and feasibility.Results:Sixty-five determinants of practice that can influence CPS implementation were identified in Phase 1. These determinants were allocated at different levels of the healthcare system, and can exist as a barrier or facilitator or both. Twenty-two key determinants were selected in Phase 2, of which three were agreed to be addressed initially: (1) Patient understanding of the aims of the service; (2) Commitment of the organization and its leaders to provide services; (3) Coordination of the healthcare system to prompt collaboration between pharmacists and GPs.Conclusions:This collaborative stakeholder approach identified a set of key determinants of pharmacy practice in this Australian primary care setting. To enhance the implementation of CPSs in this region, initial efforts should be aimed at developing implementation strategies based on these key determinants of practice.

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