Development of a cancer-based chronic inhalation reference value for hexavalent chromium based on a nonlinear-threshold carcinogenic assessment

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Abstract

Highlights

★ Nonlinear-threshold carcinogenic assessments should be considered for CrVI. ★ A health-protective, cancer-based chronic ReV of 0.24 μg CrVI/m3 was derived. ★ Chronic ReV is 300 times the EPA URF-based 1E-05 excess risk air concentration. ★ The ReV will ultimately be compared to the 1E-05 air level based on TCEQ’s URF.

The carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium(CrVI) is of significant interest to regulatory agencies for the protection of public health and to industry. Additionally, the mode of action (MOA) and conditions under which CrVI may induce carcinogenicity (e.g., reductive capacity considerations) have recently been the subject of significant scientific debate. Epidemiological data supported by data relevant to the carcinogenic MOA support considering nonlinear-threshold carcinogenic assessments for comparison to default linear low-dose extrapolation approaches. This study reviews epidemiological studies available in the scientific literature and conducts additional statistical dose–response analyses to identify potential carcinogenic thresholds and points of departure (PODs) in the context of supportive MOA information for a nonlinear-threshold inhalation carcinogenic assessment. Dosimetric adjustments and application of appropriate uncertainty factors (total UF of 30) to the selected cumulative exposure POD results in a cancer-based chronic inhalation reference value (ReV) of 0.24 μg CrVI/m3. This chronic ReV is 300 times higher than the 1 in 100,000 excess cancer risk air concentration of 8E-04 μg/m3 based on USEPA’s unit risk factor.

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