This study assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil from Piper vicosanum leaves (OPV) and evaluated the toxicological potential of this oil through acute toxicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity tests. The acute toxicity of OPV was evaluated following oral administration to female rats at a single dose of 2 g/kg b.w. To evaluate the genotoxic and mutagenic potential, male mice were divided into five groups: I: negative control; II: positive control; III: 500 mg/kg of OPV; IV: 1000 mg/kg of OPV; V: 2000 mg/kg of OPV. The anti-inflammatory activity of OPV was evaluated in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and paw edema models in rats. No signs of acute toxicity were observed, indicating that the LD50 of this oil is greater than 2000 mg/kg. In the comet assay, OPV did not increase the frequency or rate of DNA damage in groups treated with any of the doses assessed compared to that in the negative control group. In the micronucleus test, the animals treated did not exhibit any cytotoxic or genotoxic changes in peripheral blood erythrocytes. OPV (100 and 300 mg/kg) significantly reduced edema formation and inhibited leukocyte migration analyzed in the carrageenan-induced edema and pleurisy models. These results show that OPV has anti-inflammatory potential without causing acute toxicity or genotoxicity.