Interpreting biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Update to Biomonitoring Equivalents and population biomonitoring data

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Abstract

Urinary biomonitoring data for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) reflect aggregate population exposures to trace 2,4-D residues in diet and the environment. These data can be interpreted in the context of current risk assessments by comparison to a Biomonitoring Equivalent (BE), which is an estimate of the average biomarker concentration consistent with an exposure guidance value such as the US EPA Reference Dose (RfD). BE values are updated here from previous published BE values to reflect a change in the US EPA RfD. The US EPA RfD has been updated to reflect a revised point of departure (POD) based on new information from additional toxicological studies and updated assessment of applicable uncertainty factors. In addition, new biomonitoring data from both the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) have been published. The updated US EPA chronic RfD of 0.21 mg/kg-d results in updated BE values of 10,500 and 7000 μg/L for adults and children, respectively. Comparison of the current population-representative data to these BE values shows that upper bound population biomarker concentrations are more than 5000-fold below BE values corresponding to the updated US EPA RfD. This biomonitoring-based risk assessment supports the conclusion that current use patterns in the US and Canada result in incidental exposures in the general population that can be considered negligible in the context of the current 2,4-D risk assessment.

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