Evaluation of the safety of primary metabolites of cyadox: Acute and sub-chronic toxicology studies and genotoxicity assessment

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Abstract

Cyadox (CYA) is a synthetic antimicrobial agent, belonging to quinoxaline (QdNO) family. Cy1 (bidesoxy cyadox), Cy2 (N4-desoxycyadox) and Cy10 (N1-desoxycyadox) are the primary metabolites of CYA. In our present study, an acute toxicity test, a sub-chronic toxicity test, and a battery of three genotoxicity tests were carried out according to standard protocols. The LD50 of the metabolites were above 5000 mg/kg b.w. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Cy1 and Cy-M (mixture of Cy2 and Cy10) in rats, and the MTD of Cy1, Cy2 and Cy10 in mice were above 6000 mg/kg b.w./day. In subchronic study, rats were separately administered Cy1 and Cy-M at the dose levels of 0, 50, 150 and 2500 mg/kg diet for 90 days, with CYA (2500 mg/kg) as a control. Significant decreases in body weight and changes in clinical serum biochemistry were observed in the high-dose group of Cy1 and Cy-M, as well as CYA. Significant changes in relative weights of organs at 150 and 2500 mg/kg diet of Cy1 and CYA were noted. Additionally, the high-dose groups of Cy1, Cy-M and CYA showed pathological changes near the hepatic portal area. There was no evidence for genotoxic activity of any of the three metabolites in the bacterial reverse mutation test, mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay or an in vitro assay for clastogenicity. Based on the subchronic study, the target organ of the primary metabolites was the liver, and the no-observed-adverse-effect level for Cy1 and Cy-M was 150 mg/kg diet.

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