Xylans are present naturally in various plants and have important uses in nutrition, food, novel material and biotechnology; however, to date, data regarding their systemic toxicity and safety evaluation is still limited. This study investigated the potential toxicity of xylan from sugarcane bagasse by a subchronic toxicity study in rats. A total of 80 male and female rats were fed with diets containing 10%, 5%, 2.5% and 0% (control) xylan for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed including mortality, body and organ weights, food consumption, blood biochemistry, hematology, urinalysis, gross necropsy and histopathological examinations. There were no signs of toxicity and treatment-related changes in rats treated with xylan. The no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAEL) of xylan were 9.0 g kg−1 bw for males and 10.6 g kg−1 bw for females of rats under this experimental condition, respectively.