The World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (WHO TobReg) proposed mandated ceilings on 9 prioritized mainstream cigarette smoke constituents determined from the market-specific median of nicotine-normalized yield distributions. Considering the requirements for assessing and reporting of compliance with ceilings, it is of great importance to estimate the measurement uncertainty. To have a better understanding of influence of measurement uncertainty on the WHO recommended regulation for cigarette smoke constituents, in the present study, the measurement uncertainties were evaluated systematically based on series of collaborative studies reported by three different authorities over the years from 2012 to 2016, according to the approaches guided in ISO/TS 21748. Furthermore, the compliance assessment of 20 representative cigarette samples with proposed ceilings was conducted by taking measurement uncertainty into account. This work demonstrated that measurement uncertainty had great influence on the implementation of the regulated mandated lowering of toxic smoke constituents, both on the setting of ceilings and the compliance assessment as well.