Safety investigation on total steroid saponins extracts fromDioscorea zingiberensisC.H. Wright: Sub-acute and chronic toxicity studies on dogs

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Abstract

Sub-acute and chronic toxic effects of total steroidal saponins (TSSN) extracts from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright on various internal organs and biochemical indicators have never been studied before and this study is the first of its kind to demonstrate sub-acute and chronic toxicities of TSSN on dogs. Administration of TSSN extracts at doses up to 3000 mg/Kg daily for 14 days, no biochemical and organ changes were observed on the experimental groups of dogs. Further, chronic toxicity study through oral administration of TSSN extracts at the gradual doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/Kg for 90 days followed by a 2-week recovery assay revealed absence of significant architectural and morphological changes in internal organs which were confirmed through histopathological examination and merely no significant alteration in the biochemical indicators including hematologic and urine analysis and electrocardiogram compared to the control dogs. This toxicological evaluation came across with the finding that the herbal preparation can be considered as nontoxic and animals could tolerate the extracts at doses up to 500 mg/Kg with LD50 greater than 3000 mg/Kg. It may serve as a preliminary scientific evidence for further therapeutic investigations.

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