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For a tobacco heating product (THP), which heats rather than burns tobacco, the emissions of toxicants in the aerosol were compared with those in cigarette smoke under a machine-puffing regimen of puff volume 55 ml, puff duration 2 s and puff interval 30 s. The list of toxicants included those proposed by Health Canada, the World Health Organization Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation (TobReg), the US Food and Drug Administration and possible thermal breakdown products. In comparison to the University of Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette the toxicant levels in the THP1.0 emissions were significantly reduced across all chemical classes. For the nine toxicants proposed by TobReg for mandated reduction in cigarette emissions, the mean reductions in THP1.0 aerosol were 90.6–99.9% per consumable with an overall average reduction of 97.1%. For the abbreviated list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents of smoke specified by the US Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee for reporting in cigarette smoke (excluding nicotine), reductions in the aerosol of THP1.0 were 84.6–99.9% per consumable with an overall average reduction of 97.5%.THP1.0, which heats rather than burns tobacco, was compared with 3R4F cigarette.Harmful and potentially harmful constituents were measured in the aerosols and compared.Toxicants in the aerosol of THP1.0 were substantially lower than in 3R4F smoke.Reduction averaged 96.1 per cent for nine substances prioritised for lowering in cigarettes.Reduction averaged 96.8 per cent for 18 substances prioritised by the US FDA.