Primary study on the toxic mechanism of vanadyl trehalose in Kunming mice

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It has been shown that vanadyl trehalose could lower blood glucose but show mild toxicity to the stomach and intestine in diabetic Kunming mice. We analysed antioxidant levels, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis factors and intestinal microflora alteration to explore the mechanism of vanadyl trehalose toxicity in Kunming mice. The results revealed that oral administration of vanadyl trehalose at tested dose caused significant changes in oxidative stress factor (MDA levels elevated but SOD and T-AOC decreased), expression of inflammatory factor (IL-1β, COX-2, TNF-α and iNOS increased), and apoptosis factor (Bcl-2/Bax decreased and caspase-3 increased), and intestinal microflora dysbiosis (the number of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus increased and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium decreased) relative to the control of Kunming mice.

These results suggest that the toxic mechanisms of vanadyl trehalose on the stomach and intestine likely involve activation of the oxidative stress system, increased inflammatory response, promotion of apoptosis and the disruption of the normal intestinal microflora.

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