Determination of developmental toxicity of zebrafish exposed to propyl gallate dosed lower than ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake)

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Abstract

Propyl gallate (PG) is an antioxidant substance widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effect of PG injected to zebrafish embryos. To this end, zebrafish embryos were exposed to PG with 0, 1, 10 and 50 ppm concentrations which are lower than ADI and were monitored at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hpf. Survival rate, hatching rate and malformations were evaluated during this period. Moreover, it has been detected the accumulation of fluorescence signal of ROS and apoptotic cell in whole body at the end of 96 hpf. According to results, survival rate slightly decreased in highest concentration, and PG accelerated hatching in 1 and 10 ppm concentrations whereas delayed in 50 ppm concentration. In addition, it has been detected accumulation of fluorescence signal of ROS and apoptotic cells in a dose dependent-manner. Consequently, it has been considered that increased embryonic or larval malformation in this study may have been caused by ROS-induced apoptosis. The obtained data suggested that the developmental toxicity caused by PG and/or multiple hydroxyl groups arose when PG hydrolyze to gallic acid is probably triggered by the induction of ROS formation and consequent apoptosis.

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