The safety of 3′-sialyllactose (3′-SL) sodium salt was evaluated by testing for gene mutations, in vivo and in vitro clastogenic activity, and animal toxicity in beagle dogs and rats. The results of all mutagenicity and genotoxicity tests were negative, indicating that 3′-SL does not have any mutagenic or clastogenic potential. The mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3′-SL sodium salt was well above 20 g/kg body weight (bw) in rats. A dose escalation acute toxicity study in Beagle dogs also indicated no treatment-related abnormalities. Subsequent 28-day and 90-day toxicity studies in Sprague- Dawley (SD) rats involved dietary exposure to 500, 1,000, and 2000 mg/kg bw of 3′-SL sodium salt and a water (vehicle) control. There were no treatment-related abnormalities on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, relative organ weights, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy and histopathological findings. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 3′-SL sodium salt was determined to be higher than 2000 mg/kg bw/day in an oral subchronic toxicity study in rats, indicating that the substance is an ordinary carbohydrate with the lowest toxicity rating. Results confirm that 3′-SL sodium salt has a toxicity profile similar to other non-digestible carbohydrates and naturally occurring human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and support its safety for human consumption in foods.