Antinociception of the spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound LXM-15 via activating α7 nAChR and M4 mAChR and inhibiting CaMKIIα/cAMP/CREB/CGRP signalling pathway in mice

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The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of the spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound LXM-15 by intragastric administration in thermal and chemical pain models and further to elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that LXM-15 exerted significant antinociception in hot-plate test, formalin test and acetic acid writhing test. Western blot analysis showed that LXM-15 significantly reduced the upregulation of phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin -dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and further decreased the elevation of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord in mice. ELISA analysis showed the level of cAMP in the spinal cord was decreased by LXM-15. All effects of LXM-15 could be blocked by methyllycaconitine citrate (MLA, a selective α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist) or tropicamide (TRO, a selective M4 muscarinic receptor antagonist). This study first reported that intragastric administration of LXM-15 produced significant analgesic effect, which may be related to the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and M4 muscarine acetylcholine receptor, and thereby inhibiting CaMKIIα/cAMP/CREB/CGRP signalling pathway.

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