The presence of pesticide residues in fruit has been of extensive concern worldwide. In this paper, pesticide residues in peach samples in China and their dietary exposure risks for the Chinese general population and children were evaluated. Thirty-nine different pesticides were detected, and 92.3% of samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with a detection rate of 60.6%. Residues for eight pesticides in 3.2% of the samples exceeded their MRLs with the highest exceedance of 345%. The results demonstrated that the chronic dietary risks were extremely low for both the general population and children in China. Acute risks from carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, pyridaben and triazophos exposures for children and triazophos for the general population exceeded the acceptable level in the worst case scenario. Only %ARfD of triazophos exceeded 100 when intakes were calculated at the 97.5th percentile of residue level distribution. The risk scoring scheme showed nine pesticides that were considered to pose a higher risk. Different use suggestions for the 39 detected pesticides were proposed to protect the health of consumers. More strictly controlled management of banned pesticides and those suggested for gradually diminished use until banned is highly recommended.