Exploration of toxicological impacts following acute and sub-chronic exposure to ethyl anthranilate-loaded mosquito repellent patch

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Abstract

In the recent years, growing concern about the potential toxicity of synthetic repellents has led to the development of environmentally safe non-toxic insect control methods. Present investigation explores the toxicological impacts of ethyl anthranilate-loaded mosquito repellent patch (EAMRP) on respiratory system following acute and sub-chronic inhalation exposure in Wistar rats. Lungs parameters such as enhanced pause, tidal volume, respiration rate, inspiration time, and expiration time were determined using whole body plethysmograph. X-ray, scanning electron microscopy and histology were utilized to study the morphology and microscopical architecture of lungs. Hematological and serum biochemical markers were estimated. Cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-12 were also estimated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid using ELISA kits. Finally, acute oral and dermal toxicity studies were carried out to study the accidental or intentional poisoning due to the ingestion and skin contact of EAMRP, respectively. The findings demonstrate that inhalation exposure to EAMRP did not pose any significant dose related toxicity in above mentioned experiments. Further, no appreciable toxicity was observed in both acute oral and dermal exposure. Thus, these results revealed the non toxic nature of EAMRP in preclinical studies. Hence, EAMRP can be used successfully as an alternative to existing synthetic repellents without any potential health hazards.

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