In vitrotest systems to determine tetracycline residue binding to human feces

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The use of antimicrobials, such as tetracycline, in food-producing animals may result in antimicrobial drug residues (ADR) in edible tissues from treated animals and contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization (VICH) document (VICH GL36(R)/FDA-CVM Guidance for Industry#159) provides guidance on evaluating the safety of veterinary ADR in the human foods as related to effects on the human intestinal microbiome. One recognized research gap is a need for additional data and testing requirements to determine the fraction of an oral dose of ADR available to intestinal microorganisms. In the present study, we address this need by examining the binding of tetracycline to human feces using chemical and microbiological assays. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assays showed that 25% (w/v) diluted steam sterilized feces dosed with 0.15 and 1.5 μg/ml tetracycline had binding of 58.2 ± 10.8% and 56.9 ± 9.1%, respectively. Tetracycline binding to fecal slurries gave similar results. Microbiological assays with two reference bacterial strains validated the results of the chemical assays. Based on data from chemical and microbiological assays methods, the fraction of dose available to microorganisms was 0.418 and 0.431 of the 0.15 and 1.5 μg/ml tetracycline treatments, respectively. This study also proposes factors to be considered when designing and conducting experiments to determine the percent of an antimicrobial agents that is available to microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

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