The present study concerned extending the therapeutic use of buspirone for treating pain and improving cognition. Effects of single and repeated administration of buspirone were therefore monitored on pain threshold in the hot plate test and on spatial memory in the water maze test in rats. Effects on cumulative food intake were also monitored. The drug was administered intraperitoneally in doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg. We found that single and repeated administration of buspirone in doses of 0.1 mg/kg decreased pain threshold in the hot plate test, while doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg increased it. Effects of single and repeated administration were not different. A dose of 0.3 mg/kg had no effect. Food intake increased following single as well as repeated administration of 0.1 mg/kg buspirone; higher doses had no effect. Low doses (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) improved acquisition and retention of memory in the water maze test, while memory extinction was reduced. Higher doses had either no effect (1.0 mg/kg) or impaired (2.0 mg/kg) performance in this test. The results suggest potential therapeutic use of selected doses of buspirone as an analgesic and nootropic drug.